IN AN EMERGENCY: Treating a wound with no access to medical care right now? This is the post to read.
You’re cleaning up after the big storm. You’re wearing gloves but grab a pile of rubble that contains some sheet metal. Next thing you know, your glove is red with blood. You cannot get medical help. What do you do?
Basics for Treating All Cuts, Scrapes, Gashes and Stab Wounds:
1. Stop the bleeding.
Apply direct pressure. If it’s a cut finger, squeeze the wound with your other hand. With a larger area, push down with the base of your palm. Use a clean rag if available. Even if it’s a small artery, you can temporarily stop the bleeding by squeezing proximal (closest to the heart) to the wound. A tourniquet is a last resort. Direct pressure is always better if it works.
For Visual Learners
Here’s my video series on how to treat cuts:
Be careful if you suspect a broken bone underneath. You don’t want to push too hard and move the bone out of place.
As a rule, sharp cuts bleed more than dull, at least at first. (Dull cuts pull more on the blood vessels, causing them to spasm and close more). This has nothing to do with the severity of the cut. Cuts on the face and fingers tend to bleed more (more dense blood supply). If you have a mouth or tongue cut, click here for special instructions.
2. Assess the damage.
Assessing the Wound
For more details on how to assess a wound, click here.
If the blood is squirting out, you’ve cut an artery. Oozing usually means it’s a vein. Arteries are harder to stop bleeding and are more likely to supply blood the tissue cannot do without. Small arteries on the fingers usually quit bleeding after squeezing for 10 or 15 minutes. Veins take less time. If you’ve cut an artery, follow the instructions in this article. Then come back here and continue with these instructions.
To treat small cuts and nicks click here.
To treat stab wounds click here.
Even More Wound Tips—All in One Place!
Take all The Survival Doctor’s wound-treatment tips with you in The Survival Doctor’s Guide to Wounds. You’ll learn about different types of wounds, plus get an interactive guide for quick reference in an emergency.
If the wound is deep and large and won’t stop bleeding without pressure, click here.
To treat other large cuts, gashes or stab wounds, go to step three below.
3. Clean the wound.
The cleaner a laceration is the less the chance for infection. Run it under tap water or use the cleanest water you have. If your tap’s not running, punch a small hole in the bottom of a full plastic jug for extra pressure. If water is scarce, use peroxide. Alcohol is okay, including liquor, but be aware it’s going to hurt worse.
If the wound is more of a scrape, pick out the debris, and wash it. If the dirt is ground in, you may have to scrub a bit.
4. If the cut gapes open, close it.
Here’s how to close a head wound with hair instead of stitches.
Cuts that gape open can sometimes be closed with tape. Duct tape works well. (If the gash can’t be closed, clean it and pack it with clean rags.) To close the cut, follow these steps:
- Dry the wound. If you have some glue apply it to the skin edges (not the actual wound).
- Apply a strip of tape to one edge, close the skin gap using your hand, and apply the other side of the tape tightly.
- Cover the wound with clean cloth, duct tape, or whatever you have to keep dirt out of it.
No Antibiotic Ointment?
If you don’t have antibiotic ointment, you can use honey (just not on a baby).
The bandage has to be loosened if the area distal (furthest from the heart) to the cut starts turning blue or dark. This discoloration may mean this area is not getting sufficient blood flow and could be permanently damaged. See an expert as soon as possible to try to save the tissue.
5. Keep it clean and dry.
Add some antibiotic ointment if you have it. Cover it with Band-Aids, or cloth and tape, or wrap a cloth around it.
Questions and comments are appreciated.
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Special Instructions Linked to From Above
How to Treat Small Lacerations:
Small nicks or lacerations similar to paper cuts should be washed and bandaged. You can seal them with a little super glue if available. Keep clean and dry.
How to Treat Stab Wounds:
Stab wounds, or puncture wounds, are deeper than they are wide. They’re usually caused by a knife or a stick or something similar. You can’t see the whole damage.
If the chest or abdomen is stabbed, try to approximate the depth by the length of the stick or knife. If you think it may have punctured the chest or abdominal cavity, it becomes more important to seek expert care as soon a possible due to the risk of severe infection.
If the area begins to swell immediately, you may have hit an artery. Apply pressure.If not severely bleeding, wash as best you can, apply ointment and cover. Keep it clean and dry.
If the wound is deep and large:
It may never stop bleeding without pressure. Pick out any noticeable debris, pack it with clean rags and cover with tape.